Our heritage is a call to imagine and enrich inspired teaching, active learning, & civic engagement.

By Robert A. Scott, President, Adelphi University



Imagine a world in which ____________. Please fill in the blank.

Imagine a world in which:

– peace prevails
– civility is commonplace
– we treat others as we wish to be treated

Imagine a campus where, upon graduation, students pledge:

to explore and take into account the social and environmental consequences of any job I consider and will try to improve these aspects of any organization for which I work, 1

as they do at Manchester College in Indiana.

Imagine a colleague with the courage to say,

If we cannot begin to embrace democracy as a way of life: the right to be educated, to think, discuss, dissent, create, and act, acting in imaginative and revolutionary ways … if we fail to see the necessity for each of us to participate in the formation of an ethical life … if we cannot bring a sense of equity and respect into our homes, … our schools, … our governments, then democracy simply becomes, as John Dewey suggests, “a form of idolatry,” as we descend into the basement of nationalism.”2

Imagine a college whose founders exhibited such courage. Adelphi’s did.

Imagine a campus which has added forty new faculty this Fall and over 100 new faculty in the past few years, as we have.

Imagine a campus community where faculty and administrators are viewed as trusted colleagues, where members of the community can disagree without being disagreeable.

Imagine, as Oliver Sacks, the author of our “common reader” this fall, did: why do people act and react the way they do; why do metals have such diversity; why do light, color, and smell hide and then reveal such mysteries.3 Sacks may be the epitome of inquisitiveness and imagining.

Imagine a more mundane but critically important topic: why we ask you to devote so much time and attention to undergraduate and graduate admissions and enrollment, and why we refer to “enrollment by design.” Imagine if the enrollment we had was dramatically different from the enrollment we designed – – and needed.

Imagining is what we do. We imagine the past and what it means. We imagine the future and what it holds. We introduce students to thinkers who help them imagine and dream. As Emily Dickinson said, “There is no Frigate like a Book/to take us lands away.”4 And the “book,” as a metaphor for ideas and imagining, is central to the university.

The Missions of the University

The university’s purpose is to serve three missions – – as curator, creator, and critic: as curator of the past; creator of the future through new knowledge, new understanding, and new graduates; and critic of the status quo by imagining a better world.

Other institutions in society are committed to pieces of this mission: museums preserve the past; laboratories create new knowledge; journalists and writers critique current practices; and various schools prepare teachers, managers, and artists. But the university, and only the university, is responsible for all three missions. Therefore, the university is unique in serving society both at its center and at its margins.

In these ways, the university fulfills its historic missions, not as a political force, but as an ethical voice. In my view, our role is to liberate students from their provincial origins by introducing them to new frigates on which to book passage, and by helping them to advance their knowledge, skills, abilities, and values. As Baba Dioun, a Senegalese poet wrote,

In the end
We will conserve only what we love
We will love only what we understand
And we will understand only what we have been taught5

This connection between teaching (and, by implication, learning) and what “we will conserve” suggests the ethical role we play and, in this political season, the role of the university in preparing citizens. For what does “citizenship” mean but one possessing the civic rights and privileges of those free to participate in governing. And how do we prepare future citizens except by schooling, higher learning, and encouragement to act?

Now, I know there are those like Stanley Fish who reject the notion that academics have obligations for “forming character and fashioning citizens.”6 However, I believe that universities serve such a role and can do so without abrogating their responsibilities for, quoting Fish, searching “for truth (as) its own value, and fidelity to … mandates … accompanying values of responsibility in pedagogy and scholarship.7

What Fish and his fellow travelers ignore is that universities and their faculty teach in many ways. While surely it is true that faculty should teach students both general and expert knowledge, skills, and abilities without ideology and bias, it is equally true that students learn values from faculty and university behavior. Universities are not innocent actors in society.

Faculty and universities teach about character and citizenship in the ways they behave: by the authors and topics represented in their curricula; by the use of “ad hominen” in class or in the Senate; in the manipulation of results in the lab or in the footnotes used, or not used; in cancelling class assignments for Thursdays because of student parties on Wednesdays, as happens at other campuses even if not ours; in pollution from the power plant and trash from the cafeteria; in the treatment of secretaries and maintenance workers; and in special privileges in admissions and for athletes, to name just a few examples. In these and other ways, universities teach a great deal about individual integrity and civic responsibility.

Whereas Fish says we do not have responsibility for helping students “realize the skills and values of our democratic society,”8 others do. For example, Hodding Carter, journalist, Aide to President Jimmy Carter, and president of the Knight Foundation, says, we (journalists and scholars) are

Not simply … a mirror reflecting what … is happening in the community, … but indivisible from it, a piece of the community’s fabric. We must be about the business of encouraging and supporting citizenship education, beginning in grammar schools and progressing straight through secondary and higher education.”9

Carter asserts that much of higher education, like journalism, “seems to have forgotten that its ultimate health … rests on the health of the civic venture. Higher education, too, has been unduly influenced by people who seemed to believe – – indeed, proclaimed they believe – – that (its) separation from society is indispensable to its independence and integrity.10

To advance this idea of involvement is not to forego the mission as critic in favor of other goals as curator and creator, but to note that the university as an integral part of society not only takes from it, in terms of law and privilege, but also contributes to it – – in terms of commitment to its principles, rules, and development.

The University and Society

Yet, like journalists, we educators often seem to focus more on today than on yesterday or tomorrow – – more on reportage than on imagination. Take the case of “outsourcing,” much in the news by both major presidential candidates. Our students, and we, are being told to lament the jobs lost in the U.S. and shipped to other countries. Yet none of the commentators cites the history of job destruction and creation, or considers the percentage of employment in farming and mining in 1900, the percentages of jobs in those fields and manufacturing and fabrication in the 1940’s, the percentage of jobs in information services in the 1980’s, or even the number of new jobs created in exchange for those lost.

Why are past periods of job destruction and creation different from now? The answer is clear to me. During the past century we had major public investment in education, training and retraining, and research and development, all resulting in the creation of new technologies and new jobs. Think of medicines, smart materials, information systems, etc. – – and think of an immigration policy that welcomed the brightest minds from around the world. Think of current policies in both arenas.

For our students concerned about future employment, there is much that we as a society can do. Why can’t we, as a public, decide that we have priorities, and invest in new technologies and create new employment, instead of worrying about call centers and software jobs sent elsewhere. They are great for the world’s economy, but beside the point. The future is our concern. And the future includes developing zero pollution cars and other vehicles; reducing freight transport in the New York metropolitan area from 40% to the national average of 2.9%; using nanotechnology to turn pollutants into harmless molecules; learning how the brain works so as to enhance individual learning; using stem cell research to reverse diabetes, Parkinson’s, and Alzheimer’s; curing HIV-AIDS; and learning why some of us are prone to violence.

Why can’t we use common sense to invest in the public’s education, and to use publicly owned land formerly used as county offices, mental hospitals, and military bases to create housing that is affordable to our children, our police and fire fighters, our teachers, and Adelphi faculty? Instead, our state and county governments sell public land for golf courses and our federal government cuts federal spending on scientific research as well as on student aid.11

Why don’t we have an aggressive, “Manhattan Project”-like program to find and develop replacements for fossil fuels. After all, the anemic job growth we regret is in part a result of rising crude oil prices, already a consequence of our failure to develop alternative energy sources and uses – – other than the extra-expensive extraction of oil from tar sand. We have been creating energy in the same way for a century or more, and it is time for change. To approach the future in this new way is to embrace democracy as a way of life.

While imagining the past, present, and future, I am mindful of our new students. Who are these people, these new members of our academic community, these new names on our matrix? They come from some sixty countries and forty states, although, like our alumni, most come from the four counties closest to this campus.

Adelphi and Society Over Time

These students come well prepared, but I am concerned about the preparation we provide for them, and the future they face. I think about the promise of America, the role of higher education, and the work of Adelphi as a university. I have wondered about the promise of America at various dates in Adelphi’s history, and the work of Adelphi at those times. I wonder about the lessons to be learned. This is what I know.12

Adelphi was started in Brooklyn, the second largest city in the U.S., in the third year of the Civil War, 1863, on Adelphi Street, from which it took its name. It had a two-year collegiate division and attained a charter from New York State in 1896 for a separate college. During these years, from 1863 to 1896, America witnessed dramatic changes in values, society, and industry, and many of the leaders of change were involved with Adelphi.

Imagine, the founding of Adelphi coincided with the Battle of Chancellorsville and the death of Stonewall (Thomas J.) Jackson; the “Age of Progress” in Europe; and the Emancipation Proclamation in the U.S. This was the climate in which Adelphi was born. This was the period of Reconstruction, of outlawing slavery and providing voting rights for black men. It was an era of Robber Barons, corrupt politics, and suffering for factory workers and farmers. The transcontinental railroad was completed.

It also was an era of progressive thought, attacking child labor, advocating women’s suffrage, and creating settlement houses. Susan B. Anthony, the abolitionist and suffragist was acquainted with Adelphi’s founders, who included the Reverend Henry Ward Beecher and Harriet Beecher Stowe, Charles Pratt, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Lucy Stone. The first board chairman was General Henry Warner Slocum, a leader in every Civil War battle from Bull Run to Chattanooga, and called by General Sheridan as the one whose victories prevented General Meade from losing the battle of Gettysburg.

The Adelphi founded by these giants of the age was open to girls as well as boys, included physical culture as well as mental discipline, and was free of religious influence.

When Adelphi’s collegiate division became a separate college, Charles Levermore became head of both the Academy and College. He was a friend of Woodrow Wilson, and worked with him on the League of Nations. Our interest in world affairs started early.

In 1912, Adelphi joined a list of other co-ed institutions which became single-sex due to fiscal and space constraints, but its commitment to early principles continued.

In 1929, the year of the Stock Market crash and the great depression, Adelphi opened in Garden City with three buildings designed by McKim, Meade, and White. These three still stand, and are known as Woodruff, Levermore, and Blodgett. Classes started on September 30, 75 years ago this month, with an enrollment of 625 students. The date will be celebrated by chimes ringing throughout the Village at 12:00 Noon on September 30.

Adelphi College needed more space, and could not find an affordable property of sufficient size in Brooklyn. The college had a site made available by Frederic Pratt, but it was less than four acres in size and was becoming crowded by the building of apartment houses around it. Garden City provided the opportunity for a real campus, with room to grow.13

At the laying of the cornerstone here, in October, 1928, President Blodgett called the event, “the fruition of a hope and the realization of a dream.”14 On the same day, Episcopal Bishop Ernest M. Stires, as principal speaker, welcomed Adelphi to Garden City and expressed the hope that the spire of the cathedral visible from campus might “prove a constant source of inspiration.”

Education, said the Bishop, may be used in two ways. It may become a menace if wrongly used; it may become true wisdom.15

At the time of the move, President Blodgett talked about the alumnae of the College and enumerated their accomplishments:

– 500 teachers in Brooklyn
– The State Supervisor of immigrant education in Delaware
– A physician in Glen Cove
– The managing editor of Vogue magazine
– The national president of the Council of Jewish Women
– The General Secretary of the Boston Society for the Care of Girls
– The Dean of Adelphi College
– The Supervisor of Home Service of the American Red Cross
– The Assistant Superintendent of Kindergarten in NYC public schools.
– And others who served with distinction in foreign posts and in the World War.16

During the first graduation, in 1930, Dr. Blodgett said, “the fundamental purpose of an education is to enable one more intelligently and more potently to help, not to hinder; to build, not to destroy; to serve, not to demand service.” He talked about an education consisting of abiding and eternal principles, including “character.”17 Today, we talk about an Adelphi education that is as much concerned about character and citizenship as it is about careers and commerce.

In 1943, Eleanor Roosevelt came to campus to dedicate Alumnae and Harvey Halls, built by the federal government to house nursing students so sorely needed because of the War. Enrollment grew dramatically. Also in 1943, the artist and illustrator Norman Rockwell painted his famous “Four Freedoms” quartet, now housed in a special room at his museum in Stockbridge, Massachusetts. His illustrations of these concluding elements in President Roosevelt’s 1941 State of the Union Address are as relevant today as they were then: Freedom from Want and Fear; Freedom of Speech and Worship, everywhere in the world – – and they echoed Adelphi’s principles.18 They do now as well.

1963, the year Adelphi became a university, was the year of Betty Friedan’s Feminine Mystique, the assassination of President Kennedy, and Martin Luther King, Jr’s., “I have a Dream” speech and his “Letter from a Birmingham Jail.” This was the time of Barry Goldwater, whose influence is still felt, and of the Civil Rights Act, whose influence is still challenged. It was another milestone in Adelphi’s history and in society’s continuing struggle for equality, fairness, and justice.

Adelphi Today

Imagine, if you will, that Adelphi has been a place for debate about the national and global issues of the day. It has been and still can be. Imagine, too, that this institution, which has been so dedicated to excellence in teaching and learning, continues to prepare graduates every bit as distinguished as those cited by President Blodgett in 1927. We do. Today, we can claim among our alumni the heads of numerous social service agencies and hospitals, foundation executives, novelists, actors, financiers, the co-founder of Nextel and founder of the company which makes eBay work, CEO of one of the largest advertising and marketing firms in the world, high-profile lawyers, judges, the CEO of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, three New York State Senators, two members of Congress, teachers of tens of thousands of New York students, university faculty and presidents, and leaders in virtually every endeavor.

Imagine if we could call upon these alumni to mentor and guide current students. We can and we do, and they are the foundation of our growing internship program.

Imagine if ___________. You fill in the blank. It is 2004, the 75th year in Garden City; the 108th year since becoming a separate college; the 131st year since the founding of the Academy. Imagine the men and women who have given their life’s work to this institution where truth makes us free.

What is today’s trajectory? What is our vision relative to society? What priorities are we called upon to imagine? The Vision statement adopted by the Board of Trustees reads,

Adelphi University will be the leading private university in the region for undergraduates, graduate students, and faculty who value excellence in teaching, learning, research, scholarship, creative activity, and service to one’s community. The University will be known for the competence of its graduates, its strong programs and interdisciplinary orientation, its welcoming of the community onto campus, and its impact on the broader society through educational, economic, intellectual and cultural initiatives.

When thinking about society and our role as educators, our commitment to democratic principles, it is worth re-reading the Supreme Court’s 1954 conclusion to its Brown v. Board of Education case, whose anniversary we marked last Spring.

Today as in 1954, we can say with clarity,

Education is perhaps the most important function of state and local governments. Compulsory school attendance laws and the great expenditures for education both demonstrate our recognition of the importance of education in our democratic society. It is required in the performance of our most basic public responsibilities, even service in the armed forces. It is the very foundation of good citizenship. Today it is a principal instrument in awakening the child to cultural values, in preparing him (or her) for later professional training, and in helping him (or her) to adjust normally to his (or her) environment. In these days, it is doubtful that any child may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he (or she) is denied the opportunity of an education. Such an opportunity … is a right which must be made available to all on equal terms.19

Yet here we are in New York, fifty years later, where the Legislature has not been able to meet a Court Order to provide adequate funding to our schools. Why should we care? It is not just because the schools prepare students for us, or that over 20% of our students are preparing to be teachers. We care because we believe in fairness and justice, equal opportunity, and a society in which all are free. There can be no freedom for all when rights are denied to some. As Dwight David Eisenhower, U.S. President, General, Statesman, and university president said during the year Adelphi became a university, “Any time we deny any citizen the full exercise of his (or her) constitutional rights, we are weakening our own claim to them.”20

I have concerns about our State and national priorities, and hence am more concerned than ever about our responsibilities as educators. We must be alert to society, from the center and the periphery, and reflect on what we do. We must “assess, diagnose, prescribe and adjust our practices to reflect new research, training, and experience,”21 not just about our academic programs but also about our preparation of students for citizenship; not just about our teaching, but about the integrity of student learning – – which is why we emphasize the Honor Code at the Matriculation Day Ceremony.

We must be reflective about how we do what we do, not just about what we say. Our vision is to be principled and to be the best that we can be at what we do: to seek excellence in our programs and activities; top quality in our facilities, equipment and materials; and beauty in our grounds and art. Our goals are to engage students in learning and to help them not only fulfill their aspirations to earn a college degree in a timely manner, but also to be skilled, caring, and active citizens and professionals; to appoint and nurture our faculty so that they can grow professionally and live up to our tradition of first-rate teaching and advising; to be engaged in the community and to bring the community to our campus and our centers; and to be recognized for how well we do what we say we will do.

In this regard, I am pleased to report that we have moved up in the “U.S. News and World Report” rankings; The “Princeton Review” rates Adelphi as one of the top 150 colleges and universities in the Northeast; and we will be included as one of the top 300 institutions nationally in the next Fiske Guide to Colleges. In large part, this recognition is due to the 50% increase in FTE enrollment while increasing admissions selectivity and student credentials at the same time; the increase in faculty from 190 to 255; the commitments to faculty and curriculum development; the investment in facilities, equipment, technology, and the library; the attainment of fiscal stability; and the success of our student-athletes, such as our national championship Women’s Lacrosse team, and their academic gpa’s.

However, we cannot rest on these laurels. We cannot plan on a 50% enrollment increase in the next seven years. In fact, we project only a 6% increase at most. We need alternative sources of income. We cannot take for granted either the enrollment of talented students or the recruitment and retention of top faculty. We need actively to recruit them and nurture them. One reason our Physics program is doing so well is that the faculty communicate regularly with prospective students. As a consequence, we have added faculty, equipment, and laboratory space. Success is rewarded. However, we still do not have the admissions yield on offers made that we want and need. Indeed, alumni, “U.S. News,” the Kresge Foundation, and Standard and Poor’s demand more, and are watching.

According to the First Day Enrollment Report, we have met our overall enrollment targets, but have fallen short in several key areas – – new students in Arts and Sciences, Business, Education, Social Work, and ABLE, but have seen increases in continuing students in Arts and Sciences, Business, Derner, Nursing, and Social Work.22 We need to do better in achieving our enrollment design.

To achieve our goals for improved student retention and graduation, faculty recruitment and nurturing, and facilities excellence, we will supplement our ongoing budget commitments by beginning a capital campaign in about a year to obtain gifts for facilities construction (an expanded Olmsted Theatre to accommodate Music and Dance teaching, recital, and office space; a new three-gym, complete sports center for intramural and intercollegiate athletics; and renovations for Woodruff to become primarily an instructional center); and endowment for student financial aid, faculty development, and named professorships. At present, we have endowment of about $12,000 per student; we should have about six times that amount, as a minimum, just to award student scholarships. Without it, and increased annual giving from alumni and friends, we must rely on tuition income for most expenses.

This year, during a “quiet phase” to introduce the idea, tell potential donors about our vision, goals, and strategies, and seek initial gifts, we have received pledges of over $4.5 million. The pace needs to quicken, but the momentum is building. During the five to six-year capital campaign for anywhere from $50 million to $100 million, we will ask you to participate to the extent possible, because major foundations will ask about the level of participation – – as a sign of commitment – – by trustees, administration, alumni, parents, and faculty. If we have a true community of scholars and campus citizens who have committed their professional lives to this university, we will succeed. I imagine Adelphi to be such a place.

I know we are such a place because of the team-work exhibited across campus in preparing our report to Middle States, and in the strenuous efforts by faculty in Education and Business to achieve NCATE and AACSB accreditation. I also know we are such a place because of the accomplishments of our faculty, to be celebrated September 30th at 4:30pm in the Swirbul Library at the Annual Authors and Artists Reception, and our staff in Admissions, Student Services, and throughout the campus. We have enormous positive energy on campus from all quarters.

&In addition, we know we are such a place because we will break ground soon on a new 18,000 square foot Fine Arts and Facilities Building, on the south part of campus, to accommodate sculpture, ceramics, painting, and facilities, and free up Olmsted for Music and Dance, and the Lower Level of Linen Hall for faculty offices. The Village has approved this plan, and we will soon be ready to commence construction and open the new building to students and faculty next August.

In addition, I have seen campus-wide efforts to advocate for state and federal support of student financial aid, and for state support of capital construction for both public and independent institutions. More needs to be done, but the groundwork has been laid.

Think about the initiatives undertaken last year: new and revamped academic programs, including Criminal Justice, an Emergency Management Graduate Certificate, Mental Health Counseling, Early Childhood Education, and Early Childhood Education with a Special Education credential, all needed by society and built on our strengths.

For this year, we will use the same philosophy to enhance the Emergency Management Graduate Certificate to become a full-fledged Masters degree, add an M.F.A. in Creative Writing, add to our Nursing degree options, improve and enhance our A.B.L.E. (Adult Baccalaureate Learning Experience) alternatives, and expand offerings in Suffolk County (Hauppauge), Manhattan, and Dutchess County (Poughkeepsie).

As I said last year, we have secured our footing; now we must imagine how far we can reach. I imagine that we will develop an intellectual property agreement that encourages research and is beneficial to faculty and fair to the university; I imagine that the draft Code of Ethics prepared by an all-campus committee will be refined and approved by the faculty and the trustees; I imagine that our new Committee on Teaching and Learning will develop recommendations that will challenge both students and faculty, and enhance intellectual vitality and integrity on campus; and that our Task Force on Faculty Governance, which met several times this past summer, will inspire us to new levels of collaboration.


Adelphi has grown and developed in tandem with world events, always aware, at times involved, often a home to critics. Adelphi’s founders and early leaders were engaged in the issues of the day, as abolitionists and suffragists, and as advocates for tolerance, multilaterism, world peace, human rights, equitable funding for schools, and excellence in scholarship and teaching. That is true of today’s trustees as well, one-half of whom are alumni. You now have a copy of my recent response to the nation’s critical need for people who are expert in the language and culture’s of other nations.23 In this, too, we have a role to play.

Adelphi is a place where excellent teaching has lifted aspirations and prepared generations of professionals who have advanced in their fields. For us, this heritage is a gift, not a burden; a reminder, not a restraint; a stepping stone, not a stumbling block; a bright light over the shoulder, helping us find our way.

In these days of crisis in the world; of poverty, hunger, and illiteracy in so many lands; of war and terrorism in our midst, the history of our founders and faculty is a reminder of what can be accomplished in even the most difficult of times. They mobilized to help the nation in WWII. The least we can do is encourage our student’s V.O.T.E.R. (Voicing our Thoughts, Exercising Our Rights – – VOTER) project. After all, of those 18-30 years of age, about 25% of the electorate, only 13% voted in 2000.24 We can do better.

Our Adelphi heritage should be a source of inspiration, a call for us to imagine what might come next – – a call to imagine and act to enrich Adelphi’s legacy as an institution of inspired teaching, active learning, and civic engagement. Just imagine.

Thank you.

State of the University 2004 – Adelphi University. September 8, 2004

2 Williams, Terry Tempest. “Engagement.” Orion Books. Advertisement, The New York Times, September 2, 2004, Page P11.
3 Sacks, Oliver. Vintage Sacks. New York: Vintage Books, 2004. All new students were required to read this book during Summer 2004.
4 Gregorian, Vartan. “A Letter from the President.” Carnegie Reporter, Carnegie Corporation of New York, Volume 1, No.2, Spring 2004.
5 Ibid.
6 Fish, Stanley. “Why We Built the Ivory Tower.” The New York Times, May 21, 2004.
7 Ibid.
8 Ibid.
9 Carter, Hodding. “Hodding Carter III Remarks, Upon Acceptance of Gerald Sass Award.” August 5, 2004. Knight Foundation website, August 30, 2004.
10 Ibid.
11 Hebel, Sara. “Republican Platform Reaffirms Bush Policies on Stem-Cell Research.” The Chronicle of Higher Education, August 31, 2004.
12 The two major sources for the following sections are 1)Finnelly, James M. The Adelphi: Love Child of the Brooklyn Brownstones. New Jersey: The Laughing Leprechaun Press, 1996; and 2)Hirsch, E.D., Joseph F. Kett, and James Trefil. The Dictionary of Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1988. Pages 235-286.
13 “Adelphi College to Quit Brooklyn for Garden City.” Brooklyn Daily Times, June 7, 1927. (Adelphi University Archives.)
14 Barrows, Chester L. Fifty Years of Adelphi College. Garden City: Adelphi College Press, 1946, p. 129.
15 ”Cornerstone of New Adelphi Marks New Era: Bishop Gives Inspiring Address.” Adelphi College Fortnightly, Brooklyn, N.Y., Monday, October 15, 1928.
16 “Adelphi College to Quit Brooklyn for Garden City.” Brooklyn Daily Times, June 7, 1927.
17 Blodgett, Frank D. “Scrapbook.” Adelphi University Archives. Untitled and Unattributed. (Probably from Blodgett’s Commencement Address in 1930.)
18 Murray, Stuart and James McCabe. Norman Rockwell’s Four Freedoms: Images that inspire a nation. Stockbridge, Massachusetts: Berkshire House, 1993.
19 Bollinger, Lee. “Educational Equity and Quality: “Brown” and “Rodriquez” and their Aftermath.” The College Board Review
20 Dwight David Eisenhower, 1963.
21 Hinds, Michael de Courey. Teaching as a Clinical Profession: A New Challenge for Education. Carnegie Corporation of New York, 2002, p.1.
22 Lerer, Nava. “Fall 2004 First-Day Enrollment Report.” Adelphi University. September 1, 2004.
23 Scott, Robert A. Invited keynote address at the “National Language Conference: A Call to Action,” June 22-24, 2004. U.S. Department of Defense and the Center for the Advanced Study of Language at the University of Maryland.
24 Fields, Allison Byrne. “The Youth Challenge: Participating in Democracy. “2003 Carnegie Challenge. Carnegie Corporation of New York, 2003, Pp 1-3.

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